Saturday, August 27, 2016

Number Three as a Noble Number

According to Pythagoras and the Pythagorean school, the number 3, which they called triad, is the noblest of all digits, as it is the only number to equal the sum of all the terms below it, and the only number whose sum with those below equals the product of them and itself.

Montana's 3rd Birthday
Montana's #3 birthday card
A noble number is defined as an irrational number having a continued fraction that becomes an infinite sequence of 1s at some point, The prototype is the inverse of the golden ratio , whose continued fraction is composed entirely of 1s (except for the term), .

Images @ Eminpee Fotography

Friday, August 26, 2016

ESO Discovers Earth-Size Planet in Habitable Zone of Nearest Star

ESO Discovers Earth-Size Planet in Habitable Zone of Nearest Star

A newly discovered, roughly Earth-sized planet orbiting our nearest neighboring star might be habitable, according to a team of astronomers using the European Southern Observatory's 3.6-meter telescope at La Silla, Chile, along with other telescopes around the world.

Facts from the article 
  • The exoplanet is at a distance from its star that allows temperatures mild enough for liquid water to pool on its surface.
  • The new planet circles Proxima Centauri, the smallest member of a triple star system known to science fiction fans everywhere as Alpha Centauri. Just over 4 light-years away, Proxima is the closest star to Earth, besides our own sun. 
  • "The closest star to us has a possible rocky planet in the habitable zone.
  • The science team that made the discovery, led by Guillem Anglada-Escudé of Queen Mary University of London, will publish its findings Aug. 25 in the journal Nature
  • The team traced subtle wobbles in the star revealing, the presence of a star-tugging planet.
They determined that
  • the new planet is dubbed Proxima b.  
  • It is at least 1.3 times the mass of Earth. 
  • It orbits its star far more closely than Mercury orbits our sun.
  •  Proxima b takes 11 days to complete a single orbit. [a "year" on Proxima b.]
Long list of unknowns
  • the new planet lies within its star's "habitable zone" -- a distance at which temperatures are right for liquid water -- scientists do not yet know if the planet has an atmosphere.
  • It also orbits a red-dwarf star, far smaller and cooler than our sun. 
  • The planet likely presents only one face to its star, as the moon does to Earth, instead of rotating through our familiar days and nights. 
  •  Proxima b could be subject to potentially life-extinguishing stellar flares.

To read the ESO press release, visit:
To learn more about NASA's Exoplanet Program, visit:
Elizabeth Landau
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
Written by Pat Brennan
NASA Exoplanet Program

Proxima is the closest star to Earth, besides our own sun. 

Wednesday, August 24, 2016

Muslims vs Vikings

muslims v vikings

Muslims vs Vikings

“And were it not for Allāh’s repelling some men with others, the earth would certainly be in a state of disorder; but Allāh is Gracious to the creatures”[1]

The Ummah of the best of the Messengers, the imam of the messengers, most beloved of the Messengers, Muhammad (sallAllāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) is one which is raised in distinction by Allāh as the greatest Ummah. Such an honour is granted upon this Ummah for many reasons but one is certainly the honour, courage and valour shown by its adherents. Arguably, there is not a group of any significance whom you can think of from history but that you will find that the Muslims had challenged them or had been challenged by them and that the Muslims were victorious. More than a millennium ago fleets of Viking raiders were striking fear into the hearts of coast and river-dwellers throughout Europe. Many such foes have come and gone be it the Romans, the Persians, the Crusaders, the Mongols and so on. So too you will find that the Muslims also encountered the much feared Vikings.

These two worlds were of course very different. One was a red-headed pagan tribe that wore horned helmets and pillaged for a living; the other a cosmopolitan, sophisticated civilisation that spanned continents and, at whose table, the rest of Europe picked up the crumbs. The Vikings were at the height of their power and influence between the late 8th and early 11th centuries known as the ‘Viking Age’. During this period, Islām was entering its golden age, with a renaissance of unprecedented intellectual and economic heights that would eventually reach from China to what is now modern-day Spain.

Who were the Vikings?

The Vikings’ homeland was Scandinavia: modern-day Norway, Sweden and Denmark. From here they travelled great distances, mainly by sea and river – as far as North America to the west, Russia to the east, Lapland to the north and North Africa and Iraq to the south. They were skilled craftsmen and boat-builders, adventurous explorers and wide-ranging traders.

The Clash

When most people think of the history of Spain, rarely are discussions of the Vikings evoked. Yet when the two cultures first met, it was in battle in Al-Andalus, modern-day Spain.
What is interesting is that whilst the Muslims in the Middle East referred to the Vikings as ‘Rüs’, which was the term they were also know by to the Byzantine Romans, the Muslims in Europe in al-Andalus referred to them as ‘Mâjus’, ‘Fire Worshippers’ – a pejorative reference to their paganism and a label which Muslims also used for the fire worshipping Persians.

Fresh from their conquests round that basin of the Mediterranean, the Vikings sought to measure their strength against the military might of the Muslims. In 844 (230AH), a letter arrived in the capital, Qurtuba (Cordoba) from the governor of Lisbon, Burtùqaāl (Portugal, which finds its root in the Arabic word for orange), Wahballah ibn Hazm to the emir of the Umayyad Emirate of al-Andalus, ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn al-Hakam II, warning him that approximately 70-100 Viking ships had been sighted around the coast of his province. In other accounts, the ships were seen as so numerous that they were described as filling the sea with dark red birds, whilst filling the hearts of men with fear and trembling. After landing in Lisbon with their iron horned helmets, chain mail, wooden shields, spears, bows, axes and swords, they caused havoc terrorising the inhabitants. They then did the same in Cadiz and Sidona, before striking the large city of Ishbiliyya (Seville) which they besieged and took by storm and laid fire to the largest Mosque there. They remained there for 7 days and, in other accounts, for 14 days.

It is said that the Vikings were uncommonly brave and therefore ‘Abd ar-Rahman wanted to ensure all the reinforcements had arrived before mounting a challenge. When all the soldiers from the borders had arrived and gathered under one banner, the Muslims hastened and took their position under the cover of night at a high point on the south east of Seville at a place called Moron to lie in wait for the enemy. They used a large tower of a Church in the town as a watch tower to observe the movement of the Vikings. Just after the time of Fajr (the prayer at dawn) had passed, the guard on the watch tower sent a signal that the Mâjus Vikings were on the move numbering around 16,000. The Muslims let them pass and then set upon them in ambush cutting them off from the city of Seville where they were encamped and set about cutting them down. This attack was carried out with great success.

Having decimated the Vikings in this attack, the Muslims advanced on to Seville – when the Mâjus army there saw the advancement of the Muslims and heard about the disaster that had befallen their detachment army in Moron at the hands of the Muslims, they began to retreat back to their ships and started sailing away. The Muslims pursued them and captured and burned four of their ships having already unloaded them of all their cargo.[2]
The Muslim historian, Ibn Adhari narrates the event of the victory as follows:
“God gave them to our swords and destroyed them, numerous as they were. Their general was killed. When they had been annihilated, the Government made this event known throughout the provinces to celebrate this event”.[3]
Terms following the battle and the intrigue of al-Gazzál

It was characteristic of the Vikings that trading often followed the raiding and the sword. After the battle, the envoys of the king of the Vikings came to ‘Abd ar-Rahman to ask for peace. ‘Abd ar-Rahman decided to reply accepting this request and an exchange of envoys took place. The man who was commissioned with this task from the Muslims was Yahya ibn-Hakam, better known as al-Ghazál (not to be mistaken for the Muslim sage, al-Ghazzali) who was the leading diplomat in al-Andalus and who possessed keenness of mind, quickness of wit, skill in repartee, courage and perseverance, and knew his way in and out of every door. He, together with a companion of his made the perilous voyage to the kingdom of the Vikings in the Atlantic North.[4]

Two days after arriving to a great island in the ocean, the king of the Vikings summoned al-Ghazál to his presence. Al-Ghazál stipulated that he would not be made to kneel to him and that he and his companions would not be required to do anything contrary to their faith. The King agreed to this, however, when they went to him, he sat before them in magnificent guise, and ordered an entrance, through which he must be approached, to be made so low that one could only enter kneeling. Al-Ghazál being the wise man that he was, sat on the ground, stretched forth his two legs, and dragged himself through on his rear. And when he had passed through the doorway, he stood erect. 

The king had prepared himself for him, with many arms and great pomp. But al-Ghazál was not overawed by this, nor did it frighten him. He stood erect before him, and said: Assalam Alaikum, Peace be with you, O king, and with those whom your assembly hall contains, and respectful greetings to you!. Al-Ghazál sensed that the King wished for him to be impressed by the splendour of his palace and power which he perceived he held and as such, al- Ghazál took this opportunity in also reminding the King what his true reality by reciting a verse from the Glorious Qur’an carefully, selected from Surah al-Qasas, the chapter which recounts the story of Musa (ʿalayhi al-Salām) and Pharoah:
“And call not with Allāh any other god; there is no god but He, everything is perishable but He; His is the judgment, and to Him you shall be brought back. [5]
The King then said: “this is one of the wise men of his nation, we wished to humiliate him but he outwitted me by showing me the soles of his feet first sitting on the ground as he entered (rather than bowing to me)”. Al- Ghazál read out ‘Abd ar-Rahman’s letter to the King and presented the gifts which he had given him which pleased him much. From the various chronicles where this story is found, it states that the Queen took a real interest in Al- Ghazál and that he spent some time with her speaking to her about Islām and the Muslim world. Pausing here for a moment, it should be noted that earlier this year in March 2015, a ring adorned with a violet-coloured piece of glass was found at an excavation site at a Viking trading centre in Sweden. An inscription on the glass has been found to read either “for Allāh” or “to Allāh” in an ancient Arabic Kufic script. The ring was found in a grave north of Borg on the Björkö Island. Clothes and jewellery around the decomposed skeleton showed it to be a female burial dating back to 850 AD, which interestingly places it in the same period as al- Ghazál and the Viking queen.[6] Either way, the ring constitutes evidence for direct interactions between the Vikings and the Islamic world.

Al- Ghazál returned to al-Andalus more than 20 months after his departure. Although the Vikings would return once again to al-Andalus in or around 859-860 during the reign of Emir Muhammad, this time they were dealt with far more swiftly and set to flight immediately as the previous attack some 29 years earlier had caused ‘Abd ar-Rahman to militarise more aggressively which included him building an arsenal in Seville, ordering many ships to be built and developing the navy who guarded the frontiers of the country and thus, fulfilling the task which the Messenger of Allāh (sallAllāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) described as follows:
“Guarding the frontier for a day in the path of Allāh is better than fasting and prayer of a month.” [7]
Further Encounter

The most important eye witness account of the Vikings that the world has to learn from today is from the works of a Muslim faqih, an expert in Islamic jurisprudence and faith, in the court of the Abbasid Caliph, Al-Muqtadir, Ahmad ibn Fadlanas – it was his account that inspired author Michael Crichton’s 1976 novel ‘Eaters’ and the film called the ‘13th Warrior’ starring Antonio Banderas.

Ibn Fadlan was sent from Baghdad in 921 to serve as the secretary to an ambassador from the Abbasid Caliph al-Muqtadir to the iltäbär (vassal-king under the Khazars) of the Volga Bulgaria, Almış. Primarily, the purpose of their mission was to explain Islamic law to the recently converted Bulgar peoples living on the eastern bank of the Volga River in what is now Russia
Whilst on his mission, he came across and encountered the Vikings whom he also spent some time with and whom he described as follows:
“I have seen the Rus as they came on their merchant journeys and encamped by the Vulgar River. I have never seen more perfect physical specimens, tall as date palms, blond and ruddy…Each man has an axe, a sword, and a knife, and keeps each by him at all times”.
He further commented on their hygiene customs when he recounted that: “They are the filthiest of God’s creatures,” and although he acknowledged that they washed their hands, faces and heads every day, he was appalled that they did so “in the dirtiest and filthiest fashion possible” in a communal basin of water, an ancient Germanic custom that caused understandable revulsion in a Muslim who typically performed ablutions only in poured or running water.[8]

This was a period which saw the Vikings making regular journeys all the way to Baghdad for trading. Hundreds of Viking Age graves and buried hoards, it turns out, contain caches of still-gleaming Arab dirhams, “the coin that helped fuel the Viking Age,” according to Thomas S. Noonan of the University of Minnesota. Noonan is one of the world’s leading experts on medieval Scandinavian ties with the Muslim world, and a specialist in Viking numismatic history.

Points to note:

When researchers consider the history of the Vikings today, they are heavily reliant on Muslim chroniclers because, unlike Europeans, the Arab Muslims reports are considered to be far more objective and, in the eyes of many scholars today, more credible. Most experts acknowledge that the Vikings were, in general, victims of a medieval “bad press” by many European nations because of the defeats the Vikings exacted on them.

It is also easy to forget in today’s times when Muslims have become comparatively weak, that it was not always like this. It shows us that there was once a time when there was a flourishing field of Islamic geography, a response to the thirst for knowledge about the vast Islamic world and the regions beyond it. We also learn how Muslims conducted themselves, being proud of their faith and not being overawed by a dominant surrounding as we saw with the example of Al-Ghazál.

It is important for us to reconnect with our history and heritage to learn about our rich tradition of innovation, culture, honour and courage, planning and foresight and read about when the Ummah was great so that the Ummah may become great once more inshaAllāh.



For references on the battle, please see: Al-Kutia, translated by David James, “Early Islamic Spain”; And,
Ibn-Adhari, translated in Stefansson, Jon, “The Vikings in Spain. From Arabic (Moorish) and Spanish Sources”. In Saga-Book of the Viking Club: Vol. VI Proceedings. University of London King’s College, 1909, pp. 35-36.

For references on al-Ghazál, please see: “The Poet and the Spae-Wife, An Attempt to Reconstruct Al-Ghazal’s Embassy to the Vikings”, By W.E.D Allen.
[1] Al-Qur’ān 2:254
[2] Al-Kutia, translated by David James, “Early Islamic Spain”.
[3] Ibn-Adhari, translated in Stefansson, Jon, “The Vikings in Spain. From Arabic (Moorish) and Spanish Sources”. In Saga-Book of the Viking Club: Vol. VI Proceedings. University of London King’s College, 1909, pp. 35-36.
[4] “The Poet and the Spae-Wife, An Attempt to Reconstruct Al-Ghazal’s Embassy to the Vikings”, By W.E.D Allen.
[5] Al-Qur’ān, 28:88 
[7] Muslim
[8] “Among the Norse Tribes, The Remarkable Account of Ibn Fadlan”, By Judith Gabriel

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Friday, August 19, 2016

Alpaca Overview: Felting Alpaca

 Yesterday I went to a felting workshop ... I made an awesome piece and felted a chiffon scarf. 

My felted scarf
Today after reading this article below I attempted to felt raw Alpaca wool.  It worked a treat.   I am going to do several unique pieces and join those tastefully as a band on a long warm skirt for winter.  I intend to make a work of art to wear.  Something resembling that of a Nordic style, to which from one corner of the world I inherit my strong blonde hair. 

Felting is such a joy!

palette of alpaca
Image Source - Flickr
Alpaca Overview: Felting Alpaca: Felting with Alpaca Felting is one of the many way ways to utilize alpaca fiber.   Felting alpaca can create a dense, fabric like materi...

Tuesday, August 16, 2016

Palya Aunty, Yuwa Mirri

 ‘Palya’    ‘Yuwa’

‘Palya’ is a Pintupi language word meaning ‘good’.

IMG 2341 My friend Vince Forrester from NT.
My friend Vince from the Northern Territory ... a Luritja Man from the Peterman Ranges area.   Palya Vince

The word ‘Palya’ is also a way of greeting. For instance, seeing someone again one would say “Palya?”  an answer might be “Yuwa” – meaning yes – ‘Palya’.

Images @ Eminpee Fotography

Sunday, August 14, 2016

Scientists Discover That Bacteria Have a Collective Memory

Scientists Discover That Bacteria Have a Collective Memory

 Collective motion can be observed in biological systems over a wide
range of length scales, from large animals to bacteria because
collective systems always work better for adaptation than those which
are singular. Individual bacterial cells have short memories. But groups
of bacteria can develop a collective memory that can increase their
tolerance to stress. This has been demonstrated experimentally for the
first time in a study by Eawag and ETH Zurich scientists published in PNAS.

A central question in the study of biological
collective motion is how the traits of individuals give rise to the
emergent behavior at population level. This question is relevant to
the dynamics of general self-propelled particle systems, biological
self-organization, and active fluids. Bacteria provide a tractable
system to address this question, because bacteria are simple and their
behavior is relatively easy to control.

exposed to a moderate concentration of salt survive subsequent
exposure to a higher concentration better than if there is no warning
event. But in individual cells this effect is short-lived: after just 30
minutes, the survival rate no longer depends on the exposure history.
Now two Eawag/ETH Zurich microbiologists, Roland Mathis and Martin
Ackermann, have reported a new discovery made under the microscope with
Caulobacter crescentus, a bacterium ubiquitous in freshwater and

When an entire population is observed,
rather than individual cells, the bacteria appear to develop a kind of
collective memory. In populations exposed to a warning event,
survival rates upon a second exposure two hours after the warning are
higher than in populations not previously exposed. Using computational
modelling, the scientists explained this phenomenon in terms of a
combination of two factors. Firstly, salt stress causes a delay in
cell division, leading to synchronization of cell cycles; secondly,
survival probability depends on the individual bacterial cell's
position in the cell cycle at the time of the second exposure. As a
result of the cell cycle synchronization, the sensitivity of the
population changes over time. Previously exposed populations may be
more tolerant to future stress events, but they may sometimes even be
more sensitive than populations with no previous exposure.

Martin Ackermann comments: "If we understand
this collective effect, it may improve our ability to control
bacterial populations." The findings are relevant, for example, to our
understanding of how pathogens can resist antibiotics, or how the
performance of bacterial cultures in industrial processes or
wastewater treatment plants can be maintained under dynamic
conditions. After all, bacteria play a crucial role in almost all bio-
and geochemical processes. From a human perspective, depending on the
particular process, they are either beneficial -- e.g. if they break
down pollutants or convert nutrients into energy -- or harmful,
especially if they cause diseases. For the researchers, says Mathis,
another important conclusion can be drawn: "If you want to understand
the behaviour and fate of microbial populations, it's sometimes
necessary to analyse every single cell."

Bacteria also have the collective capacity to
generate many neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. For example,
certain Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species produce gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA); Escherichia, Bacillus and Saccharomyces produce norepinephrine (NE).

Future studies of how microbes contribute to the function of their
host on all levels will play an important role in advancing
understanding of health disorders as well as disorders of social


L-Glutamine Changes Gut Bacteria Leading To Weight Loss

Thursday, August 11, 2016

Neologisms.... New Words

Urunga Antiques & Collectables.SAM 8050 Pramming Pram
Perambulator .... Pram


Hence a "Neologism" put simply is a new word.  Here is a definition.
A neologism is the name for a relatively new or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language. Neologisms are often directly attributable to a specific person, publication, period, or event.
 I have wondered about the word "Arvo".   Is it Australian slang or was it at one stage a neologism?
Arvo being a new word that was made from 'This Afternoon'?

Does a Neologism come from a longer (ONE) word shortened like  Pram - Perambulator?   These are questions I would wonder.  

However if you didn't know what a Neologism was - now you do!       Its a Matrix type of understanding. 

It is always good to understand the smaller parts of a word in Latin and then one can know automatically what the strange word maybe.

Images @ Eminpee Fotography

Wednesday, August 10, 2016

#CensusFail 2016 Census

Disco potato with IBM spud open boot firmware 

The 9th August was set down to be Australia's 2016 Census Night.  The Turnbull government have turned this into a circus.

The extraordinary fiasco of doing this online has been the brunt of endless jokes today as the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) appealed to the public that the website had been attacked by hackers and later on they reported a DDoS attack (Denial of Service).  It was made clear by IT experts that Australia was not attacked by either of these at all yesterday.

All of a sudden the lies of the government have been exposed for what they are, a massive power grab against the Australian People's privacy.  I and many others feel they failed.  People are laughing everywhere at the farcical mess up of a great institution that has been delivering good statistics for many years with out any fuss. 

Many Australian Senators are boycotting putting their names on the papers and some are boycotting it in total because it has been made into a farcical nightmare.

Friday, August 05, 2016

Homeschool to avoid Brainwashing.

Lower left door
Image Source - Flickr
Today its clearer than ever before that for a majority of children in our society the activity of being separated from parents for a number of hours each day is a traumatic experience.  It could be seen as a grand waste of a lot of valuable time to.  That is if you look at the length of time it takes to complete a days lessons at home in comparison the number of hours at a school.  This figure is dramatically reduced in a one on one situation.

"Forced association is not socialization"  Adele Carrol-Brown

Read the following interesting article regarding the unschooling of a school (brainwashed) child.  It is a process and its worth while.

Why Every Parent Should Consider Unschooling

Thursday, August 04, 2016

Barnaby Joyce ... Big sigh!

 On 11 February 2016, Joyce was elected unopposed as Leader of the National Party, with Fiona Nash as his deputy, and was sworn in as Deputy Prime Minister of Australia on February 18, 2016.

He won his seat in the New England over the independent Tony Windsor and since then has made gaff after gaff and had to recover himself time and time again.

Jesuit trained no doubts as he has a strange way of looking at the world.  It is clearly an antiquated Roman Catholic view.   After all he thinks Gay marriage will impede his daughters having a normal marriage.  Some how I just don't get his logic here.  Perhaps he fears there are more gay men than he previous expected and worries there wont be enough straight men for his straight daughters.

Ex Prime Minister Kevin Rudd didn't get his position with the United Nations because Barnaby hadn't buried a previous hatchet adequately.  Presently, questions are being asked did Barnaby lie to the Australian people about this.
Read Here...

SARRAH delegation_070813  

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About Barnaby:
Public Speeches: - via; retrieved 17 April 2010
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David Feeney, Chilling Prospect of Funding Failure in Antarctica, The Australian, 4 January 2016. Retrieved 15 February 2016
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Remeikis, Amy: LNP's Barry O'Sullivan headed for Senate, The Sydney Morning Herald, 12 September 2013.
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Roberts, Greg (8 October 2004). "Nationals split over Family First deal – Election 2004". The Australian. p. 9. Retrieved 16 August 2010.
"Anger over rally to ridicule gay marriage". The Sydney Morning Herald. AAP. 16 August 2011.
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Joyce joins calls for medicinal cannabis: 1 June 2014 Daily Telegraph
"Bring in more Syrian refugees: Barnaby Joyce". The West Australian. 2015-09-04. Retrieved 2016-04-17.
Kidman, Alex (2015-09-07). "Syrian refugee crisis: This is about humanity, not religion - The Drum (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". Retrieved 2016-04-17.
Joyce, Barnaby (11 September 2005). Barnaby Joyce: A Most Interesting Senator (transcript). Interview with Antony Funnell. Background Briefing. Radio National. Australia. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
Joyce, Barnaby (17 March 2009). Barnaby Joyce launches campaign to keep Rio Tinto local (transcript). Interview with Kerry O'Brien. 7.30 Report. ABCTV. Australia. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
Barnaby Joyce. "We have concerns over sale of Cubbie Station: Barnaby Joyce". Retrieved 2016-04-17.
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Tim Elliott. "Kidman sale halt a chance 'to reassess'". Retrieved 2016-04-17.
"Opposition agriculture spokesman Joel Fitzgibbon slams 'political' decision to block Kidman & Co sale - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". 2015-11-21. Retrieved 2016-04-17.